New TRR-publication! Antibiotic Acyldepsipeptides Stimulate the Streptomyces Clp-ATPase/ClpP Complex for Accelerated Proteolysis
Clp proteases consist of a proteolytic, tetradecameric ClpP core and AAA+ Clp-ATPases. Streptomycetes, producers of a plethora of secondary metabolites, encode up to five different ClpP homologs, and the composition of their unusually complex Clp protease machinery has remained unsolved. Here, we report on the composition of the housekeeping Clp protease in Streptomyces, consisting of a heterotetradecameric core built of ClpP1, ClpP2, and the cognate Clp-ATPases ClpX, ClpC1, or ClpC2, all interacting with ClpP2 only. Antibiotic acyldepsipeptides (ADEP) dysregulate the Clp protease for unregulated proteolysis. We observed that ADEP binds Streptomyces ClpP1, but not ClpP2, thereby not only triggering the degradation of nonnative protein substrates but also accelerating Clp-ATPase-dependent proteolysis. The explanation is the concomitant binding of ADEP and Clp-ATPases to opposite sides of the ClpP1P2 barrel, hence revealing a third, so far unknown mechanism of ADEP action, i.e., the accelerated proteolysis of native protein substrates by the Clp protease.
IMPORTANCE Clp proteases are antibiotic and anticancer drug targets. Composed of the proteolytic core ClpP and a regulatory Clp-ATPase, the protease machinery is important for protein homeostasis and regulatory proteolysis. The acyldepsipeptide antibiotic ADEP targets ClpP and has shown promise for treating multiresistant and persistent bacterial infections. The molecular mechanism of ADEP is multilayered. Here, we present a new way how ADEP can deregulate the Clp protease system. Clp-ATPases and ADEP bind to opposite sides of Streptomyces ClpP, accelerating the degradation of natural Clp protease substrates. We also demonstrate the composition of the major Streptomyces Clp protease complex, a heteromeric ClpP1P2 core with the Clp-ATPases ClpX, ClpC1, or ClpC2 exclusively bound to ClpP2, and the killing mechanism of ADEP in Streptomyces.
Reconstitution of Streptomyces ClpP1P2 in vitro with Clp-ATPases X, C1, C2 and the natural substrates PopR and ClgR.
Clear biochemical proof that ClpP can be operated by two different activator types (ADEP, Clp-ATPase) in parallel.
The degradation of natural substrates is accelerated.
Full version of the paper: https://doi.org/10.1128/mbio.01413-22
Congratulations to all the authors!